The coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is a transmittable viral infectious viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS COV 2) which appeared in Wuhan province of China in the late 2019 and spread around the world rapidly. The original source of this virus is still unclear and its transmission in humans is also unknown however transmission among humans is reported throughout the world. The key problems are the uncertainty and rapid transmission considering the fact that we are still at large with the vaccine but there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating the progress for a vaccine in the near future. We are trying to discuss the Covid-19 Case Study so it gives a better idea to understand its timeline and progress.
How did the coronavirus outbreak start?
In November 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases caused by a newly identified coronavirus occurred in Wuhan, China. Initially, this virus was named 2019- novel coronavirus, on January 12 WHO officially named it, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19). The Chinese scientists rapidly isolated a SARS-CoV-2 from a patient within a short time on 7 January 2020 and came out to genome sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2. The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.
In 2003, the Chinese population was infected with a virus causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong province. This virus was confirmed as a member of the Beta coronavirus subgroup and was named SARS-CoV. The patients infected then showed symptoms of pneumonia with a diffused alveolar injury which leads to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.
A decade later, in Saudi Arabia, few people were diagnosed with another coronavirus infection. The newly detected virus was confirmed to be a member of the coronavirus family and was named the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The source of origin and transmission are important to develop preventive strategies to contain the infection. The human to human transmission of the virus is due to close contact with an infected person, exposed to coughing, sneezing, and respiratory droplets. Based on current investigations, the incubation period is 1-14 days, mostly 3-7 days. It is contagious during the latency period.
On 31 st December, Wuhan Municipal Health Commission reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia. A novel coronavirus was identified.
1 st January WHO set up a team, putting the organization on an emergency footing for dealing with the outbreak.
WHO reported a cluster of pneumonia cases with no deaths in Wuhan. WHO published the first disease outbreak news on the new virus.
On 10 th January WHO issued a comprehensive package of technical guidance online with advice to all countries on how to detect, test, and manage potential cases. Based on experience with SARS and MERS and known modes of transmission of respiratory viruses, infection and prevention control guidance were published to protect health workers recommending droplet and contact precautions when caring for patients, and airborne precautions for aerosol-generating procedures conducted by health workers.
16 th January, Japan confirmed a case of coronavirus in a person traveled to Wuhan to WHO. The first alert on travel was released. Since then it has taken shape of a pandemic meaning the cases emerged without a history of travel or contact with the infected persons.
Create a safe haven for the sick and elderly. The elderly and children are in the first line of attack. They are most vulnerable to the virus and we need to take steps to keep them safe.
Get out of town– staying in big cities is difficult where social distancing is hard to maintain and outbreaks are more likely to spread. It is being advised to people who have relatives and family in hometowns or native towns to travel and stay there with less population and contacts.
Get the police involved– social distancing is hard to follow in dense and low-income countries. Many governments around the world have turned to the police to ensure that people stay in homes and maintain social distancing.
Reinvent factories– more supplies are needed to fight with coronavirus. Get factories to switch gears and respond well to the immediate need of gears required for health care workers and frontline workers.
Set up hand washing stations– public health officials globally stress the importance of frequent hand washing. In low and middle-income families, around 35% of people lack regular access to soap and water. To improve the ability for people to clean their hands, WHO advises that hand hygiene stations — either with soap and water or with alcohol-based hand sanitizer — to be placed at the entrances of buildings, and in transport hubs such as bus and train stations. The system can be as simple as two buckets — one filled with chlorinated water, and one to catch the wastewater.
Conclusion– the outbreak of COVID-19 swept across china rapidly and has spread to more than 85 countries/territories/ areas outside of China hitherto. Scientists have made progress in the characterization of the virus and are working towards the vaccine against the virus.
The supporting treatments, combined with potent antiviral drugs, such as redeliver, chloroquine, or lopinavir/ritonavir, have been conducted with a definite effect on treat COVID-19 patients, while solid data from more clinical trials are needed. However, questions remain vague and more studies are urgent to explore the transmission and pathogenicity mechanism of the emerging coronavirus. To make clear the evolutionary path from the original host to cross-species transmission so as to potentially limit the transmission to naïve animals or humans. In addition, to uncover the mystery of the molecular mechanism of viral entry and replication, this provides the basis of future research on developing targeted antiviral drugs and vaccines.